This bibliography contains examples of primary and review articles relevant to the use of science and math songs in education. Additional suggestions and comments are welcome; please submit them to Greg Crowther (

Music and memory

FS Barrett et al. Music-evoked nostalgia: affect, memory, and personality. Emotion 10: 390-403, 2010.

GH Bower and LS Bolton. Why are rhymes easy to learn? Journal of Experimental Psychology 82: 453-461, 1969.

SL Calvert and M Tart. Song versus verbal forms for very-long-term, long-term, and short-term verbatim recall. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 14(2): 245-260, 1993.

S Chazin and JS Neuschatz. Using a mnemonic to aid in the recall of unfamiliar information. Perceptual and Motor Skills 71: 1067-1071, 1990.

GJ Crowther et al. Making material more memorable ... with music. American Biology Teacher 75(9): 713-4, 2013.

M Heaton and K Paris. The effects of music congruency and lyrics on advertisement recall. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research IX: 1-4, 2006.

P Janata. The neural architecture of music-evoked autobiographical memories. Cerebral Cortex 19: 2579-2594, 2009.

P Janata et al. Characterisation of music-evoked autobiographical memories. Memory 15: 845-860, 2007.

M McElhinney and JM Annett. Pattern of efficacy of a musical mnemonic on recall of familiar words over several presentations. Perceptual and Motor Skills 82: 395-400, 1996.

DW Rainey and JD Larsen. The effect of familiar melodies on initial learning and long-term memory for unconnected text. Music Perception 20(2): 173-186, 2002.

ML Roehm. Instrumental vs. vocal versions of popular music in advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 41(3): 49-58, 2001.

DC Rubin. Very long-term memory for prose and verse. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16: 611-621, 1977.

DC Rubin and WT Wallace. Rhyme and reason: analyses of retrieval cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15(4): 698-709, 1989.

MD Schulkind et al. Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: They're playing your song. Memory and Cognition 27: 948-955, 1999.

MC Smith and MR Phillips. Age differences in memory for radio advertisements: the role of mnemonics. Journal of Business Research 53(2): 103-109, 2001.

DW Stewart and GN Punj. Effects of using a nonverbal (musical) cue on recall and playback of television advertising: Implications for advertising tracking. Journal of Business Research 42: 39-51, 1998.

WT Wallace. Memory for music: effect of melody on recall of text. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20(6): 1471-1485, 1994.

WT Wallace and DC Rubin. Characteristics and constraints in ballads and their effects on memory. Discourse Processes 14: 181-202, 1991.

DE Wolfe and C Horn. Use of melodies as structural prompts for learning and retention of sequential verbal information by preschool students. Journal of Music Therapy 30: 100-118, 1993.

RF Yalch. Memory in a jingle jungle: music as a mnemonic device in communicating advertising slogans. Journal of Applied Psychology 76(2): 268-275, 1991.

Music and the brain

C Grape et al. Does singing promote well-being?: An empirical study of professional and amateur singers during a singing lesson. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 38: 65-74, 2003.

G Husain et al. Effects of musical tempo and mode on arousal, mood, and spatial abilities. Music Perception 20(2): 151-171, 2002.

P Janata. Music and the self. In R Haas and V Brandes (eds.), Music That Works (pp. 131-141). Wien: Springer, 2009.

P Janata et al. Sensorimotor coupling in music and the psychology of the groove. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141: 54-75, 2012.

PN Juslin and P Laukka. Expression, perception, and induction of musical emotions: A review and a questionnaire study of everyday listening. Journal of New Music Research 33: 217-238, 2004.

S Kirschner and M Tomasello. Joint music making promotes prosocial behavior in 4-year-old children. Evolution and Human Behavior 31, 354-364, 2010.

J LeDoux. The flip side: scientists who rock. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15: 335-337, 2011.

J LeDoux. Music and the brain, literally. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5: 49, 2011.

DJ Levitin. This is your brain on music: the science of a human obsession. New York: Dutton, 2006.

I Peretz and RJ Zatorre. Brain organization for music processing. Annual Review of Psychology 56: 89-114, 2005.

LA Russell. Comparisons of cognitive, music, and imagery techniques on anxiety reduction with university students. Journal of College Student Development 33: 516-523, 1992.

OW Sachs. Musicophilia: Tales of music and the brain. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.

A Savan. The effect of background music on learning. Psychology of Music 27: 138-146, 1999.

EG Schellenberg. Examining the association between music lessons and intelligence. British Journal of Psychology 102: 283-302, 2011.

EG Schellenberg. Cognitive performance after music listening: A review of the Mozart effect. In RAR MacDonald, G Kreutz, and L Mitchell (eds.), Music, Health and Wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. In press.

K Vaughn. Music and mathematics: modest support for the oft-claimed relationship. Journal of Aesthetic Education 34(3-4): 149-166, 2000.

Music in the classroom

JA Ahlkvist. Music and cultural analysis in the classroom: introducing sociology through heavy metal. Teaching Sociology 27(2): 126-144, 1999.

JA Ahlkvist. Sound and vision: using progressive rock to teach social theory. Teaching Sociology 29(4): 471-482, 2001.

BD Albers and R Bach. Rockin' soc: using popular music to introduce sociological concepts. Teaching Sociology 31(2): 237-245, 2003.

BE Blanchard. The effect of music on pulse-rate, blood-pressure and final exam scores of university students. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 19: 305-308, 1979.

SS Bottari and JR Evans. Effects of musical context, type of vocal presentation, and time on the verbal retention abilities of visual-spatially oriented and verbally oriented learning disabled children. Journal of School Psychology 20(4): 329-338, 1982.

GJ Crowther. Using science songs to enhance learning: an interdisciplinary approach. CBE Life Sciences Education 11: 26-30, 2012.

GJ Crowther. The database: an educational resource for instructors and students. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 40(1): 19-22, 2012.

GJ Crowther. Learning to the beat of a different drum: music as a component of classroom diversity. CONNECT 19(4): 11-13, 2006.

GJ Crowther and K Davis. Amino Acid Jazz: amplifying biochemistry concepts with content-rich music. Journal of Chemical Education 90: 1479-1483, 2013.

GJ Crowther et al. Integration of math jingles into physiology courses. Journal of Mathematics Education 8(2): 56-73, 2015.

GJ Crowther et al. Leveraging the power of music to improve science education. International Journal of Science Education 38(1): 73-95, 2016.

MA Davies. Learning ... the beat goes on. Childhood Education 76(3): 148-153, 2000.

H Elterman. Using popular songs to teach sociology. Teaching Sociology 10(4): 529-538, 1983.

C Emdin. Affiliation and alienation: Hip-hop, rap and urban science education. Journal of Curriculum Studies 42(1): 1-25, 2010.

C Emdin. Rethinking student participation: A model from hip-hop and urban science education. EDge Magazine 5(1): 3-18, 2009

C Emdin et al. Hip-hop based interventions as pedagogy/therapy in STEM: a model from urban science education. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10(3): 307-321, 2016.

D Governor. Teaching and learning science through song: exploring the experiences of students and teachers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 2011.

D Governor et al. Teaching and learning science through song: Exploring the experiences of students and teachers. International Journal of Science Education 35(18): 3117-3140, 2013.

GD Grossman and CE Watson. The use of original music videos to teach natural history. Journal of Natural History Education and Experience 9(1) 1-7.

MC Jurmu. Implementing musical lyrics to teach physical geography: a simple model. Journal of Geography 104: 179-86, 2005.

D Kranke et al. Ideas in action: Teaching qualitative analytic methods in social work research through the analysis of song lyrics. Social Work Education 35(2): 229-235, 2016.

LM Lesser. Mathematical lyrics: noteworthy endeavours in education. Journal of Mathematics and the Arts 8(1-2): 46-53, 2014.

LM Lesser et al. Assessing fun items' effectiveness in increasing learning of college introductory statistics students: results of a randomized experiment. Journal of Statistics Education 24(2): 54-62, 2016.

TA Martinez. Popular music in the classroom: teaching race, class, and gender with popular culture. Teaching Sociology 22(3): 260-265, 1994.

J Maute. Tune in Memory. Middle School Journal 18(2): 3-5, 1987.

WGL McCammon Jr. Chemistry to music: discovering how music-based teaching affects academic achievement and student motivation in an 8th grade science class.. Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, 2008.

SM McCurdy et al. Incorporation of music in a food service food safety curriculum for high school students. Food Protection Trends 28: 107-114, 2008.

T McFadden. Music in the science classroom: the impact of content-based songs on learning & engagement. Masters thesis, University of Otago, 2012.

WH Robertson and L Lesser. Scientific skateboarding and mathematical music: edutainment that actively engages middle school students. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 1(2): 60-68.

K Smolinski. Original science-based music and student learning. Doctoral dissertation, Walden University, 2010.

K Smolinski. Learning science using music. Science Scope 35(2): 42-5, 2011.

CRW VanVoorhis. Stat jingles: to sing or not to sing. Teaching of Psychology 29: 249-250, 2002.

D Walczak and M Reuter. Using popular music to teach sociology: an evaluation by students. Teaching Sociology 22(3): 266-269, 1994.

CK Winter. Singing the songs of science: Using musical parodies for microbiology education. Focus on Microbiology Education 15(1): 10-11, 2008.

CK Winter et al. Food safety education using music parodies. Journal of Food Science Education 8: 62-67, 2009.


CE Crawley and PR Bishop. Communicating science through music: a case study from mathematics and biology. In M Bucchi and B Trench (eds.), Quality, Honesty and Beauty in Science and Technology Communications: 12th Conference on Public Communication of Science and Technology (pp. 288-290). Vicenza: Observa Science in Society, 2012.